Coakley insisted her second-place finish was not a disappointment. She also said it had been her idea to mention the 2010 defeat in her convention speech.
"I felt it was really important to say to people, 'I know how tough that loss was,'" Coakley told reporters after the vote.
Berwick began his speech with the story of a young black man who beat childhood leukemia only to die, impoverished, in the streets later in life.
"It is a lie that those with great wealth have the right to control our future. It is a lie that corporations are people. They aren't. It is a lie that the poor make themselves poor; that the sick make themselves sick," said Berwick, who has also made opposition to casinos a centerpiece of his campaign.
Berwick said he believed primary voters would be responsive to his message.
"I think the seeds are there for an extremely successful campaign because the message we have is the message that this commonwealth is waiting for: boldness, achievement, being a beacon for the nation," Berwick said.
Despite not making the ballot, Kayyem and Avellone said they would continue fighting for the issues they pushed during their campaigns.
Republicans Charlie Baker and Mark Fisher will both appear on the GOP primary ballot for governor.
Democrats also chose which candidates for other statewide offices would secure a spot on the September primary ballot using the same 15 percent rule.
Former state Sen. Warren Tolman narrowly beat out Maura Healey, a top aide to Coakley, to win the party's endorsement for attorney general. Both will be on the primary ballot.
Stephen Kerrigan, a former aide to Kennedy, was the top vote-getter in the lieutenant governor contest with 38 percent to 35 percent for Michael Lake, who runs the Leading Cities organization. Cambridge City Councilor Leland Cheung, with 16 percent, also made the ballot, but former Department of Agriculture regional administrator James Arena-DeRosa fell short with 11 percent.
Former Brookline selectman Deborah Goldberg topped the balloting for state treasurer, followed by Wayland state Rep. Thomas Conroy and Andover state Sen. Barry Finegold. All three will appear on the primary ballot.